The Policy of Russia in the field of Economy.
As against to the provisional Government the government of the Soviet Russia had started drastic transformations in the field of economy. Those transformations were based on the program of Bolsheviks's party.
The foundation of the "reform" was the strict centralization, which led to establishing " military communism " in the country. The idea of transformation of state-monopoly bodies of regulation of capitalist economy in Russia to the mechanism of systematic management of national economy in conditions of dictatorship of Bolsheviks's party had resulted in unprecedented before centralization. By summer of 1920 there were almost 50 central boards created, which controlled large nationalized enterprises, regulated the relations with the non-nationalized minor, handicraft and cooperative industries, coordinated adjacent industries and distributed the production. That system was to a certain extent able to coordinate quantitative increment of production, but not its quality and variety.
November, 14, 1917 the work control over manufacture, purchase, sale of products and materials was established. Functions of the organization of national economy and public finances were assigned to the Supreme Council of National Economy (VSNH) founded in December 2 by the Soviet of People's Commissars. In December, 14, 1917 the Central Military Executive Committee (VTSIK) had passed the decree about nationalization of banks.
In March 1918 the situation of Russian economy went down. The country had lost the important industrial and agricultural areas in Transcaucasia and Ukraine, 40 % of industrial production, 90 % of the iron industry. By the end of 1918 from 9750 enterprises more than 3800 became inactive. In comparison with 1913 the gross output was reduced 3 times as much and had made 1845 million roubles. In 1918 it was made only 31,5 million poods of pig iron, 24,5 million poods of steel and 21,8 million poods of rolled metal.
The way out of the economic crisis was found by means of nationalization of foreign trade in April 1918, the industrial enterprises - in May, reinforcement of the centralized management of the industry and militarization of economy. In the second half of 1918, despite economical difficulties, the growth of military production began. It was produced 900 thousand rifles, 8 thousand machine guns, 2 thousand arms, 500 million cartridges and 2,5 million shells. Reservation of grain monopoly of the state, introduction of food dictatorship and the announcement in May of a crusade against rural bourgeoisie had allowed with assistance of the committees of the rural poor created in June to forcibly withdraw the significant amount of bread from prosperous peasants. 140 million poods of bread was sent to industrial centers and starving areas in 1918-1919.
At the same time all those measures had alienated peasants of average means, which made 60 % of peasantry, against the Soviet authority, became one of the reasons of failure of mobilization to the army and growth of desertions. And only after liquidation at the end of 1918 - the beginning of 1919 the committees of the poor it was possible to reduce the opposition of average peasantry against new authority. In 1920 the Central Committee of the Republican Communist Party (of bolshevics) and the government of Russian Soviet Federative Soviet Republic had undertaken a number of measures on restoration of a national economy. The repairing of railway transportation, i.e. the rolling stock was speeded up. So, since January till April the number of serviceable steam locomotives had increased from 4 up to 5 thousand, and cars - from 167 up to 196 thousand. As a result of reconstruction works in Donetsk coalfield the coal mining had increased from 208 thousand tons in January up to 384 thousand tons in March. The storage of bread had also increased from 100 million poods in May, 1, 1919 up to 163 million (without Ukraine) in May, 1, 1920 ã.
The Basis of the Economic Policy of the Whites.
The Leaders of the white regime - A.I.Denikin, A.V.Kolchak, N.N.Yudenich, P.N.Vrangel, etc. intended to pursue limited measures in the field of economy. However, because of the short-term existence of political regimes and inconsistency of the economic policy those measures weren't a success with the population.
General A.I.Denikin (1872-1947) was the adherent of restoration of ' Russia, one and indivisible', establishment of military dictatorship and extermination of Bolshevism. In April 1919 on his initiative the 'Declaration of land', which considered the security of interests of workers and reservation of landowning rights, was passed. Simultaneously the resolution of the Provisional Government on the grain monopoly was cancelled. In November the project of the 'Land law' was made, allowing landlords to give parts of their lands to peasants.
Admiral A.V.Kolchak (1874-1920), as well as general Denikin, considered it necessary to defeat Bolshevics. He supported elections to the constituent Assembly and declaration of independence of Finland and Poland, autonomy of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The economic program of admiral Kolchak aimed at granting land to the landless and having insufficient lands peasants, return of the seized lands to their proprietors and resolution of the agrarian question by national assembly.
General P.N.Vrangel (1878-1928) followed the so-called 'left policy with the right hand', the essence of which concluded in realization of the agrarian reform in order to have the support of prosperous peasantry of South Russia and Ukraine. This reform provided restrictions on large landlord possessions, an increase of allotments of peasants of average means, maintenance of peasants with industrial goods by free marketing. However, as it was mentioned, the leaders of the white regime did not manage to put their economic programs into practice and they were practically compelled to rely on the financial, economic and military help of the countries of Entente.
Armed Forces of Soviet Russia.
By the close of 1917 it was evident to the Soviet government that the Russian Army, tired of the three-year war and propaganded by Bolsheviks, lost its fighting efficiency. Bolsheviks' support - the Regional Guards (about 465 thousand of people) wasn't battle-tried and lacked of arms and command cadres.
Therefore on November, 10 SNK (the Soviet of People's Commissars) decided to start gradual reduction of the Russian army, and on the 16th of December subjugated it to itself, implemented appointment of the officers and officials by election, cancelled all the military ranks and gave full authority of the army to soldiers committees and Soviets. On the 15th of January 1918 SNK passed the decree of formation of the Workers' and Peasants Red Army (RCCA) on a voluntary basis, and on the 29th of January - the Workers' and Peasants' Socialist Red Fleet.In the beginning of March the Supreme military council for supervision of all military operations under the chairmanship of narkom (people's commissar) of military affairs L.D.Trotsky's was founded. In April compulsory military training of workers and peasants was introduced, the institute of military commissioners, volost, district, provincial and regional military commissariats were established. Simultaneously the election system of commissariat stuff, which hadn't justified itself, was cancelled, " the Formula of solemn promise " (the oath of allegiance) at enrolling in the army, and in May - new system of military - district division of the country were introduced. A number of former officers and generals were involved in military service. From the officer corps totaling by October 1917 in 200 thousand people, 75 thousand had served in the Red Army and on the fleet during civil war.
In April of 1918 SNK ratified the plan of expansion of the million army. In May 29 the Central Executive Committee (VTSYK) made a decision of compulsory recruitment to RCCA. It allowed to increase its number by the end of 1918 up to 725,4 thousand soldiers. August, 19 1918 the SNK passed the decree of unification of all Armed forces of the Republic, foundation of the People's Commissariat (narkomat) of military affairs, and on the 2nd of September the VTSYK decided to transform the country into a military camp, create the supreme body of military authority - the Revvoensovet (the Revolution Military Council) of the republic (chairman - Trotsky) and to introduce the post of the Commander-in-chief of all Armed forces of RSFSR (I.I.Vatsetis).
Finally, under presidency of V.I.Lenin the Soviet of Working and Country Defense was established on the 30th of November, which was given the full rights of mobilization of forces and facilities of the country for the sake of its defense. The important decisions on military question were taken on the VIIIth congress of the RCP (b) (Russian Communist Party of Bolshevics) (in March 1919). The Congress demanded to put an end to vestiges of guerilla warfare and raise the regular Red Army with strong military discipline, make a wider use of experience and knowledge of military experts. The Congress abolished the All-Russia bureau of military commissioners, made the decision of formation of the political Department of the RVSR (the Revolution Military Soviet of the Republic), transformed in May to the Political administration headed by I.T.Smilga. The TSK (Central Committee) was put in charge of reorganization measures of the Field staff of the RVSR, improvement of activity of the RVSR and the All-Russia general staff.
On the initiative of the Commander-in-chief I.I.Vatsetis on the 1st of June the VTSYK took the decision " About unification of military forces of the Soviet republics: Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Byelorussia ". Strength of the army and fleet grew from 1,6 million in May 1919 to 2,6 million in March 1920. In July 8, 1919. I.I.Vatsetis was dismissed from the post of the Commander-in-chief for " belonging to the White Guard organization " (subsequently that accusation didn't not prove to be true) and replaced by the commander of the East front S.S. Kamenev. With a purpose of unification of all victual affair except for the products delivered by the narkomat of foodstuffs, on the 9th of July the VTSYK founded a post of the Emergency authorized by the Soviet of Defense for the supply of the Red Army (it was occupied by A.I.Rykov). There were taken measures on intensification of the influence of Bolsheviks in the army and fleet. The number of army communists increased from 35 thousand in October 1918 up to 121 thousand in October 1919.
Armed Forces of Opponents of Bolsheviks.
As against to Bolsheviks their opponents raised armed units separately from each other, using experience of the former Russian army. In November 1917 the Alekseevskaya organization was formed in Novocherkassk. From the end of December it started to be called the Voluntary army, which was headed by general L.G.Kornilov.
In the Don area general P.N.Krasnov in April 1918 started formation of the Don army. In the east of Russia in the beginning of 1918 the troops under command of the commissioner of the Provisional Government in Transbaikalia, the hereditary cossack yesaul I.M.Semenov and the ataman of Ussurian cossacks yesaul I.M.Kalmykov were formed with assistance of English officers. On the territory of China, in Harbin, general L.Horvat, and in the Volga region nobleman colonel V.O.Kappel raised the armed units. Under direction of the Committee of members of the Constituent Assembly in Samara the work on organization of the National army was conducted.
In April 1918 the Ural army government, headed by Menshevik G.M.Fomichev, formed the Ural army, and the Siberian Provisional Government (chairman P.V. Vologdodsky) in June - the East-Siberian (from the end of July - Siberian) army. In the north with active participation of allies, the Slavonic-British legion was formed, in Baltic - voluntary rifle battalions were raised of the Russians, the Baltic Germans, the Lithuanians, the Latvians and the Estonians. Central Rada at the end of 1917 started raising the Ukrainian units. In Transcaucasia the work on formation of Moslem, Armenian and Georgian corps was deployed. Basmanian troops became the main support of anti-Bolsheviks forces in Turkestan.
In April 1919 the Provisional government of the Northern area acknowledged the Supreme authority of admiral A.V.Kolchak. In May he appointed general E.K.Miller the Commander-in-chief of the armies of the Northern area. The Northern army, which formation started in 1918 on the territory of Pskov and Vitebsk provinces, was included in the structure of Pskov voluntary corps. In June 1919 the corps developed into the Northern (since July, 1 - the Northwest) army. At the same time general P.R.Bermond-Avalov started raising of the Western voluntary army, which because of the refusal to obey to general N.N.Judenich was disbanded in December. The chairman of the Ukrainian directory S.V.Petljura managed to raise the Ukrainian national army with the strength up to 30 thousand soldiers in Ukraine.
Armed Struggle in Ukraine and in the South of Russia
March 14 armies of the Ukrainian front started the offensive in right-bank Ukraine, unauthorized by Commander-in-chief I.I.Vatsetis. Working balances of the General Headquarters, assigned to the South front, were used for reinforcement of the front. It allowed the Ukrainian front to stop the advance of the UNR by the end of March, and then, developing its success, seize Odessa April 6 and then Crimea.
The unit of forces of the Ukrainian front was sent for help to the Hungarian Soviet Republic in April, but due to aggravation of the situation in Donbass and revolt of the 6th Ukrainian rifle division in the rear of the front the help wasn't rendered. Failure of execution of the orders of the General Headquarters of shifting armies to reinforcement of the Southern front and attempts of the Ukrainian headquarters of independent actions led to disbandment of the Ukrainian front.
During fierce battles armies of the Southern front managed to break the resistance of general Denikin's armies and in April 1919 force crossed river Manych in Velikoknyazheskaya area, starting advance to Bataisk and the Tikhoretskaya. Simultaneously armies of the front combated against insurgent Cossacks, and a unit of forces was sent for struggle against troops of N.I.Makhno, who showed distrust to the government of the USSR, kept out food brigades from the regions controlled by him and prohibited formation of the Combeds (the committees of the poor). General Denikin took the advantage of complicated situation in the rear of the Southern front. In May his troops launched a counter-offensive and forced armies of the Southern front leave the Don area, Donbass and part of Ukraine.
Reinforced in July the Southern front prepared counterattack on the 15th of August. However, headquarters of the Don army managed to get intelligence on the preparing operation. Aiming at its derangement the 4th Don cavalry corps of general K.K.Mamontov started the raid of rears of the Southern front, disorganizing the work of its supplying services and army conducting bodies, which was one of the reasons of failure of the planned counterattack.
Main bodies of the Southern front, suffering great losses, retreated to the north. September 20 the Voluntary army seized Kursk, and in the beginning of the October the Don army seized Voronezh. The TSK of the RCP (b) again interfered with conduction of the armed struggle, taking decision of reinforcement of the Southern front by means of shifting the troops from the Petrograd sector of the Western front and from the 6th detached army. The younger and energetic former colonel A.I.Yegorov was appointed the new commander of the Southern front instead of the former 50-year-old general V.N.Yegoryev.
The front was divided into - the Southern and the Southeastern (commander- V.I.Shorin) fronts. At the same time TSK took measures on bringing the Cossacks in the side of the Soviet authority. September 11 after reinforcement the Southern front launched counter-offensive. Its armies inflicted a defeat to the main body of the Voluntary army, seized Orel and on 24th - Voronezh. During further advance Kastornaya and Kursk were released. Next by the close of December armies of the South and the Southeastern front released Donbass. January 3 -Tzaritsyn, 7 - Novocherkassk, 10, 1920 - Rostov-on-Don were seized.
December 16, 1919 forces of the 12th army seized Kiev. With coming out of the Soviet armies to approaches to Northern Caucasia, the Southeastern front was renamed Caucasian, and the South - Southwestern. Its armies set free right-bank Ukraine and February 7 occupied Odessa. In January-April 1920 the Caucasian front crushed the armed forces of South Russia, coming out to the borders of the Azerbaijan and Georgian republics. April 4 general A.I.Denikin passed the command of the rest of his armies to general P.N.Vrangel, who started to raise the Russian army in Crimea.
Negotiations with Germany, the Relations with Entente.
The first statement of the second All-Russia congress of Soviets was the Decree on peace passed in October, 25 1917. All belligerent nations and their governments were suggested to start immediate negotiations on just democratic peace and concluding an armistice. Accomplishing of this task was assigned to the National commissariat of foreign affairs, headed by L.D.Trotsky.
Simultaneously the supreme Commander-in-Chief of the army in the field general N.N.Duhonin was commissioned to address to " the command of the enemies armies " with a suggestion of immediate armistice with a view of opening of peace talks ". However, general Duhonin declared that he supported signing of the prompt universal peace, but " the peace necessary for Russia might have been guaranteed only by the central government ". In response the government of RSR in November 9 dismissed general Duhonin from the post of the supreme Commander-in-Chief for refusal " to enter into immediate formal peace negotiations " with Germany.
The ensign N.V.Krylenko was appointed the new Commander-in-Chief. On the 13th of November he assigned truce envoys for negotiations with the German Command. The Chiefs of allied military missions at the Headquarters (except for the USA) noted a protest against the breach of the contract, concluded by the Tzar's government with allies in August 23, 1914, and the separate armistice between Russia and Germany. November 20, 1917 N.V.Krylenko at the head of a consolidated detachment arrived at Mogilyov, location of the Headquarters. General Duhonin, aiming to avoid bloodshed, had on the eve released imprisoned in Bykhov arrested generals L.G.Kornilov, A.I.Denikin etc., ordered shock battalions to leave the city, and himself was killed by Red Guards.
Next day the contract of temporary cessation of arms between the command of Austro-German armies and the Russian Western front was signed, and on the 2nd of December Russia and the countries of the Quadruple union (Bulgaria, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey) signed an armistice.The governments of the powers of Entente refused to admit the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of the Soviet Russia. At the conference in Paris on the 9th of December 1917 the representatives of Entente agreed upon the establishment of communication with the separate governments of Caucasus, Siberia, Ukraine and the Cossack areas.
Great Britain and France signed the agreement named " Conditions of the convention coordinated in Paris in December, 23, 1917 ". It provided the supervision by the French zone of actions of Ukraine, Bessarabia and Crimea, and by the English - Caucasus and the Cossack areas. January 1, 1918 the military ships of Japan entered the port of Vladivostok on the far East with the purpose of protection of own residents. January, 8 the president of the USA W.Wilson sent a message to the congress (" Wilson's 14 items "). It provided the necessity of evacuation of German armies from the Russian territory, acknowledgement of de facto existing governments of Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and Ukraine, convocation of national assemblies in these republics. In the message it was pointed out, that it was necessary " to provide for Great Russia an opportunity of federal integration with them '.
The Anti-Bolsheviks Actions.
The government of the Soviet Republic after the conclusion of an armistice with the Quadruple union had an opportunity to concentrate all its forces on the fight against opponents of the new authority. The organizer of the struggle against Bolshevism on the Don was the representative of ancient Cossack origins the ataman of the Don Cossack army general A.M. Kaledin (1861-1918).
With the consent of the Committee of Rescue of the Homeland and the Revolution, founded by the representatives of all political parties (except for Bolsheviks and Cadets), on the night of the 14th to the 15th of November Cossacks and Junkers arrested some members of the Orenburg council, preparing the revolt. November 25, 1917 Sovnarkom of the Soviet Russia declared all areas on the Ural and the Don where " the counterrevolutionary parties would be revealed ", in a state of siege, and generals Kaledin, Kornilov and colonel Dutov ranked as the enemies of the nation.
On the 8th of December the chairman of SNÊ V.I.Lenin assigned the direction of the ' operations against Kaledin's armies and their accomplices " to the narkom (People's commissar) of military affairs the second lieutenant V.A.Antonov-Ovseenko, who formed the field staff of the South Russian front for the struggle with counterrevolution. The Cossacks - front-line soldiers tired of war refused from the armed struggle. On the 10th-11th of January 1918 the congress of the front Cossacks was convoked in Kamenskaya stanitsa, which declared the deposition of the Army government and the formation of the Don Cossack VRÊ (the Military-Revolutionary Committee).
General Kaledin, aiming to avoid fortuitous losses, resigned from the post of the army ataman on the 29th of January and shot himself the same day. The Soviet detachments, operating along railways, occupied Taganrog on January 28, Rostov - on February 23 and Novocherkassk - 25. The rests of the Cossack armies (1,5 thousand men) escaped to Salskye steppes. The Voluntary army (about 4 thousand men) led by general Kornilov set out to Kuban (the 1st Kuban, or the Ice campaign). March 23 the Don regional VRK proclaimed the formation of the Don Soviet Republic as a part of the RSFSR, with the second ensign F.G.Podtelkov at the head of the government.
The joint shifting detachment of revolutionary soldiers and Baltic man-of-war's men headed by the warrant officer S.D.Pavlov, the Red Guard's detachments from Samara, Yekaterinburg, Perm, Ufa and other cities were directed for the struggle against the Orenburg Cossacks. January 18, 1918 they occupied Orenburg. The rests of Dutov's armies retreated to Verhneuralsk.The 1st Polish corps of legionaries of nobleman general Y.R.Dovbor-Musnitsky set out against the Soviet authority in Byelorussia. The supreme Commander-in-Chief Krylenko declared him without the law and the enemy of the revolution. In the first half of February, 1918 Latvian rifle detachments, squadrons of revolutionary man-of-war's men and Red Guards under command of I.I.Vatsetis (Vatsietis) and I.P.Pavlunovsky defeated legionaries, throwing them back to Bobruisk and Slutsk.
The government of the Soviet Russia intensified its work in Ukraine where at the end of October, 1917 the authority in Kiev passed to Ukrainian Central Rada. November 7 it proclaimed the Ukrainian National Republic (UNR) a federal part of the Russian Republic. However, the head of UNR - V.K.Vinnichenko (the member of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Working Party) and members of his government didn't acknowledge the government of RSR. The latter according to the contract of an armistice with the Quadruple union of December 4 declared the acknowledgement of the Ukrainian National Republic, its right to be separated from Russia or to conclude the contract of federal or similar to that mutual relations between them.
Despite that, the Ist All-Ukranian congress of Soviets hastily called by Bolsheviks in Kharkov on December, 11-12 declared Central Rada without the law and proclaimed Ukraine the republic of Soviets of working, soldier's and country deputies. The formation of the Soviet republic in parallel to existing in Ukraine resulted in the growth of tension. Simultaneously in the government of UNR the interparty disagreements appeared, which resulted in V.K.Vinnichenko's resignation.
Sovnarkom of RSFSR (the name of the Russian Soviet Republic since January 1918), aiming to distribute the Soviet authority to all Ukraine, on January 3, 1918 accused Central Rada of disorganization of front, disarmament of Russian armies, with support of general Kaledin.Sovnarkom demanded to stop such actions within 48 hours, and in case of neglect of these requirements considered Rada in a condition of open war against the Soviet authority in Russia and in Ukraine. Central Rada rejected the presented ultimatum, having proclaimed Ukraine the independent state on the 9th of January. In response, the Soviet armies under command of the left socialist-revolutionary M.A.Muravyev started the approach and on January 26 occupied Kiev.
Complex conditions existed in Transcaucasia, where on the 5th of December the Transcaucasian commissariat and the command of the Caucasian front concluded the Ardzirzhan armistice with Turkey. However, the struggle for the authority at the front between the Regional council and the Revolutionary-military committee of the Caucasian army resulted in January 1918 in armed conflicts of the confronting parties. The situation was also aggravated by the decision of SNÊ of the Russian Soviet Republic from December, 29, 1917 about the support of the right of the Armenian people, living on territory of Turkish Armenia, for free self-determination down to full independence. The government of Turkey, having taken the advantage of shifting Russian armies to the rear of the Caucasian front, in February, 1918, entered the armies on the territory of Turkish Armenia, having stepped to the borders in 1914.
In the beginning of January, 1918 the armed conflicts between armies of the Moldavian National Republic and the parts of the Romanian front, which were under the influence of Bolsheviks, took place. Romania, which armies on January, 13 marched into Kishinev, interfered with the conflict. The same day SNÊ of RSFSR took the decision of the breakup of diplomatic relations with Romania.
Separate negotiations with Germany, successful in the beginning, soon reached a deadlock. At the first stage of negotiations the representatives of the countries of the Quadruple union accepted the offer of Russian delegation, including the one of prevention of forced joining of the territories, seized during the war. The Chief of the Headquarters of the German army, general - field marshal P. von Gindenburg bluntly opposed the proposal. On behalf of the kaiser William II he declared, that the supreme command itself should bear the responsibility for peace talks.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany considered it necessary to continue rapproachement with Russia and support Bolsheviks. William II approved this suggestion. However, the requirements of Germany soon became stricter and included giving the territories of Poland, Lithuania, Kurland, Estland, parts of Livland and the Grodno province into its possession.
The TSK of the RSDRP (b) (the Central Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Working Party (of Bolsheviks)), practically solving all the state questions, on January, 11, 1918 with the majority of voices approved the resolution project of Trotsky: " Stop the war, not make peace, demobilize the army". On January 27 Germany, aiming to put pressure upon Russia, signed the peace treaty with UNR as a first step " to the strong and honorable to all sides world peace ". William II, having received the news about it, demanded from Russia conclusion of peace on earlier raised conditions with simultaneous immediate clearance of Livland and Estland territories or immediate break of negotiations and termination of the armistice.
On the 28th of January Trotsky confirmed the former decision of the TSK of the RSDRP (b). After that the German command declared termination of an armistice and reopening of military actions from 12 o'clock on the 18th of February. The German armies were put before the task of realization " of territory - limited actions ", striking a short, but strong blow on the left wing of German East front (operation "Faustshlag"). February 18 the German army started approach maintained by armies of the Ukrainian National Republic in Ukraine, the 1st Polish corps of legionaries - in Byelorussia, Turkish armies - in Transcaucasia, and since February 28 by Austro-Hungarian army.
On the night of the 18th to 19th of November Sovnarkom of RSFSR sent the radiogram to the government of Germany with the consent to make peace. However, joint shifting groups of Germany continued approach, despite the persistent resistance showed in the Pskov, Valksk and Revelsk directions by forces of separate units of Russian army, Red Guards detachments and units of the formed Red Army, and by partial forces of the separate Czechoslovak corps in Ukraine. February, 22 - the TSK of the RSDRP (b) adopted a resolution on an admissibility of use of the help offered by France and England, in war with Germany. However, the events on the front rapidly developed and not in favor of Soviet Russia.
February 25 units of the German army occupied Revel (Tallinn) and 28th - Pskov. The same day peace talks were resumed in Brest-Litovsk. March 3 the Russian delegation headed by Bolshevik G.Y.Sokolnikov (Brilliant), signed the peace treaty with the Quadruple union. " The Congress recognizes as necessary, - the resolution of VII emergency congress of Bolsheviks ran, - to ratify the signed by the Soviet authority severest, most humiliating peace treaty with Germany ". At IV Emergency All-Russia Congress of Soviets in March 15 the contract was ratified by overwhelming majority of votes.
Under the contract Russia had to clear of its armies the provinces of East Anatoly and Ardagan, Kars and Batum districts, Estland, Livland, Aland islands and Ukraine, demobilize the army, make peace with the Ukrainian National Republic and admit the treaty signed with the powers of the Quadruple union.
The borderline in Ukraine still was not set Having taken advantage of it and due to the contract with UNR, Germany continued approach. In April the German armies together with the Ukrainian units occupied Crimea, and in the beginning of May - Rostov-on-Don. The heads of the governments of Great Britain, France and Italy, having discussed the current situation in Russia in March 1918 in London, made a decision to start allied intervention engaging Japan and USA with the purpose of rendering assistance to East Russia. Murmansk Soviet, headed by A.M.Yuryev, beware of possible attack of the German and Finnish armies, with the consent of narkom of foreign affairs Trotsky on March, 2 signed the verbal agreement with allied missions about joint actions on defense of Murmansk territory. In the beginning of March allied troops landed in Murmansk. The government of Great Britain declared its consent to support yesaul G.M.Semenov. In the beginning of April the Japanese and English troops landed in Vladivostok with the purpose of protection of life and the property of foreign citizens.
Civil war and Military Intervention.
At the end of May, 1918 the situation on the east of the country, where the parts of the separate Czechoslovak corps were located, aggravated. Under the agreement with the government of RSFSR the corps was the subject to evacuation to France through Vladivostok on conditions of giving up of weapon, except for the minimal necessary for protection of echelons. However, the breach of the agreement by the command of the corps and attempts of organs of the Soviet authority to disarm the corps resulted in armed confrontations.
On the night of 25th-26th of May Czechoslovak units launched the attack on Chelyabinsk and soon together with White Guard formations occupied almost all the Transsiberian trunk-railway. The Soviet authority in the occupied areas was thrown down.
July 2, 1918 the Supreme Council of Entente made a decision of beginning an intervention in Russia. July 6 in Murmansk the ' Temporary agreement of exceptional circumstances of the representatives of Great Britain, North American United States and France with the presidium of Murmansk regional Soviet ' with a view of joint protection of the territory from the powers of the German coalition was signed. July 17 the state department of USA issued the memorandum of an admissibility of military actions in Russia. On the 2nd of August members of socialist-revolutionary (S.R.) and national socialists parties and cadets carried out anti-bolsheviks revolution in Arkhangelsk. The authority passed to the Supreme government of the Northern area headed by N.V.Chaikovsky, under the agreement with whom about one thousand of English, French and American soldiers and sailors landed in Arkhangelsk.
By the offer of the Dictatorship of Centrocaspy, formed after the fall of the Baku commune, the English armies entered Baku for its protection against the Turkish army. After short fights Turkish armies seized Baku.Left S.R.s, considering the Brest - Lithuanian peace treaty as a treachery of interests of world revolution, made the decision on turning back to the tactics of individual terror.
In July 1918 the members of " the Union of protection of the Homeland and freedom " raised the revolt in Yaroslavl, and the Commander-in-Chief of the East front M.A Muravyev ordered to stop operations against the Czechoslovak corps and to turn the weapon against the German armies. In conditions of threat of capture of Ekaterinburg by White Guards, according to the decision of Revkom (Revolutionary Committee) of the Ural area, coordinated with the government of RSFSR, on the 18th of July the former emperor Nikolay II and all his family were executed. In August the chairman of Petrograd ChK (Emergency Committee) and narkom of internal affairs of the Northern area M.S.Uritsky was killed, at the same time V.I.Lenin was wounded in Moscow. These acts of terrorism were the reason of accepting on September 5 the enactment of " The Red terror " by SNK of RSFSR.
The armed offensive of the separate Czechoslovak corps on June 13, 1918 compelled Sovnarkom of RSFSR to create Revvoensovet (the Revolutionary Military Soviet) on the East front for the struggle against it. After regrouping and reinforcement of the army of the East front a new operation was started and within two months the territories of the Middle Volga and the Kama regions were occupied. At the same time the Southern front (the former general P.P. Satin) conducted serious defensive battles against the Don army in Tsaritsyn, Povorin and Voronezh directions. In the middle of September the rests of the Soviet armies located to the southwest of Armavir united with the Taman army.
The autumn of 1918 in connection with the end of the World War I the essential changes took place on the international scene. On the 30th of October Turkey signed Mudrosskoe armistice with the countries of Entente, according to which in November Englishmen again occupied Baku. In the beginning of November the revolutions took place in Germany and Austria-Hungary. On the 11th of November the agreement of an armistice was signed between the countries of Entente and Germany in Kompyen. According to the confidential addition to it the German armies remained on occupied territories before arrival of armies of Entente.
In the note to the Supreme Soviet of Entente from November, 12 the General Staff of the Chief Headquarters of the allied armies offered to destroy Bolshevism and to encourage creation of the regime of the order on the basis of national interrogation in Russia. With this purpose it was considered to maintain the situation in the east, advance actions of the allies in the north to Petrograd and in the south to the Caspian sea and the Volga, carry out intervention in South Russia through Romania and the Black sea.
In November - December 1918 the allied troops landed in Novorossiisk, Odessa and Sevastopol, new allied contingents appeared in Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and in Vladivostok. November 13, 1918 VTSYK took the decision of cancellation of the Brest - Lithuanian peace treaty. Under the arrangement with the German command the Red Army started occupation of the territories from which the German armies were called off. The advance of the Soviet armies was carried out despite protests of the governments of the Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian Republics. On the territories controlled by the Red Army, were formed the Estland labor commune (November, 29), the Lithuanian (December, 16) and the Latvian (December, 17) Socialist Soviet Republics.
In connection with the end of the World War I the changes occurred in the foreign policies of the countries of Entente. Thus, the English military cabinet made a decision not to send armies to Russia, except for technical units. By February 1919 there were total of 202,4 thousand of soldiers and officers of allied armies on the Russian territory. With the purpose of making up of the armies with the skilled military staff on October, 25, 1918 CK RKP (B) decided to release all captive officers, and in November recognized as necessary to achieve agreement with average peasants, not refusing from the struggle against the kulaks and strongly basing only on the poor.
All these measures led to crisis on the front in favor of the Red Army. Under the report of the member of Revvoensoviet of the Southern front G.Y. Sokolnikov on the 16th of March CK stopped the use of repressive measures against Cossacks and called upon carrying out the policy of stratification among them. However, the unlawful decision of Orgbureau (the Organizational Bureau) provoked on the night of the10th-11th of March the revolt of Cossacks on the Top Don, which seriously complicated the further approach of armies of the front.
In January 1919 general A.I.Denikin arranged measures on centralization of the government of all anti-soviet forces in the south of the country. The Voluntary and the Don armies were united in the armed forces of the south of Russia. Their structure also included the Crimean-Azov army, armies of Northern Caucasus, the Caucasian army and the Black Sea fleet. To facilitate the conditions of the Don army, general Denikin started shifting units of the Caucasian Voluntary army (the former Voluntary Army) from Northern Caucasus to Donbass. With joint efforts in the beginning of February the Voluntary and the Don armies stopped the advance of armies of the Southern front.
Counterattack of the Red Army.
Approach of White armies to all fronts and counterattack of the Red Army.
At the end of February 1919 the General Headquarters of the Red Army considered the primary goals - the struggle against incorporated forces of Entente and Voluntary army in Ukraine and against the incorporated forces of Finland, Estonia, Germany and Poland assisted by Entente on the Western front. It was supposed to conduct active operations in the Arkhangelsk direction in the north, seize Perm, Ekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk in the east with the purpose of opening access to Western Siberia and also to advance to Turkestan and the over Caspy area.
The General Headquarters of the armies of Entente considered, that " the restoration of the regime of order in Russia was a particularly national concern of the Russian people ". For the defeat of Bolshevism it was supposed to use " Russian forces ", armies of the great powers of Entente and neighboring to Russia states. At the same time it was considered, that " Russian forces at the present condition were powerless to provide revival of the country ".
The General Headquarters of the armies of Entente also skeptically estimated the opportunities of the armies of Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Estonia believing they " were unable to operate at present'. Concerning its armies Entente intended to limit with sending only the command structure, volunteers and military reserves. The Supreme Headquarters of Entente considered, that intervention against the Bolshevik's regime was possible only with the formation of a united interallied headquarters and " establishment of the status of belligerent states'.
Despite rather uncomplimentary estimation of the anti-Bolsheviks " Russian forces ", they made an attempt to strengthen their position in the spring of 1919. In the beginning of March the army of admiral Kolchak (the Siberian, Western, Ural, Orenburg armies and Southern army force) suddenly assumed the offensive. On the 14th of March they seized Ufa, broke down the resistance of the small 5-th army of the East front. On the 15th of April after stubborn fights the opponent seized Buguruslan and came out to the river Big Kinel. April 20 Admiral Kolchak demanded of his armies to continue vigorous pursuing of the East front armies, throwing them back to the south in steppes, and block their withdrawal over the Volga, capturing its major ferries.
On demand of CK RKP (B) fresh forces and troops were shifted to the East front from others. April 28 the Southern group of armies of the East front (formed in March) launched a counter-offensive. It inflicted a defeat to the Western army and occupied Buguruslan. Further the Turkestan and the 2nd armies crushed the Volga corps of general V.O.Kappel and seized Belebel. By the middle of May the front armies repulsed the attempts of the Orenburg and Ural armies to occupy Orenburg and Uralsk and to break the advance of the Southern group in the Ufa direction. In May - June the Turkestan army forced the river Belaya, seized Ufa and drove back the troops of the Western army to foothills of the Ural.
At the same time the Northern group of the East front armies (formed in March, 1919) with the forces of the 2nd army and the Volga military flotilla defeated the Siberian army, occupied Sarapul and Izhevsk. Forces of the 3rd army, combating with a part of forces of the Siberian army, came out to distant approaches to Perm. The strategic initiative in the east passed to the East front which armies started general approach on the 21st of June.In August 1919 the East front was divided on two fronts: the East and the Turkestan. In October forces of the East front seized Petropavlovsk and Ishim and in January, 1920 finished the defeat of armies of admiral Kolchak, who was arrested and executed. With an outlet to Baikal the further progress of the Soviet armies to the east was stopped to avoid war with Japan, which forces were still occupying a part of the territory of Siberia. Under decision of CK RKP (B) and the government of RSFSR in April, 1920 the buffer Far East republic was formed.
The Turkestan front under command of a Bolshevik, former voluntarist Ì.Â. Frunze (1885-1925) defeated the Southern army of general G.A.Belov and in September united with the armies of the Turkestan republic. In November - December the Ural army of general Â.Ñ.Tolstoy was crushed and the Ural area was also occupied. At the end of December, 1919 the unit of forces of the Turkestan front, having forwarded on the left coast of the Amurdarya, intruded to the territory of Khivan khanate. On the 2nd of February 1920 the armies occupied Khiva. As a result Khivan khanate was liquidated and in April it was proclaimed the Khorezm National Soviet Republic.
Military actions in the West and the North of Russia.
In spring of 1919 armies of the Western front combated against the Finnish, German, Polish, Estonian, Lithuanian, Latvian and White Guard armies in Karelia, Baltic and Byelorussia. At the end of April the Finnish Olonetsk voluntary army assumed the offensive, defeated forces of the 7-th army of the Western front, seized the Vidlitsa and Olonets, endangering Petrograd from the north. In the middle of May the Northern corps (since June 19 the Northwest army) under command of general K.K.Dzerzhinsky (since June, 1 under command of A.P.Rodzyanko) started approach in the Petrograd direction. Under attacks of the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian units supported by the Northern corps the troops of the 15-th army left the territory of Baltic.
On the night of June, 13 under the direction of members of " the National center " garrisons of forts of the Red Hill, the Grey Horse and Obruchev rose the rebellion in rear of the 7-th army. However, with the help of the ships of the Baltic fleet the units of the army suppressed the revolt within three days and on June, 21 passed into counterattack on interfluvial isthmus and the zone between the Koporsky gulf and Pskov.
At the end of June - the beginning of July 1919 the Onega military flotilla landed troops in the area of the mouth of the Vidlits river, which defeated the units of the Finnish Olonetsk voluntary army and threw them back to the border. At the end of July - the beginning of August the armies of the Western front repelled counterstrokes of the Polish, Estonian and White Guard armies. August 5 the formations of the 7-th army occupied Yamburg, and then rendered assistance to the 15th army, which defeated the Northwest army and on August 26 seized Pskov. By the end of the month the 16th army managed to stop the advance of the Polish armies in Byelorussia.
The governments of the Baltic countries in reply to the offer of the government of RSFSR from August 31 and September 11 to start peace talks on the basis of recognition of their independence, refused conducting offensive actions against Soviet Russia. As well as Poland, they did not want to help the armies of generals Denikin and Yudenich, who refused to recognize their sovereign rights. The temporary lull on the Western front, allowed to transfer part of its forces to the south. Simultaneously its 7th army under command of former general D.N.Nadezhny during persistent defensive fights stopped the advance of the Northwest army of general N.N.Yudenich and on October 21 passed to counterattack.
Together with the 15th army the 7th army forced the army of general Yudenich back to the Estonian border. Its rests went to the territory of Estonia where were disarmed and interned. February 2, 1920 signing of the peace treaty between the delegations of RSFSR and Estonia took place in Yurievo. The contract proclaimed the cessation of the state of war between both countries, RSFSR recognized independence of Estonia and transferred the appropriate part (15 million roubles gold) of gold reserves of Russia to it.
The Soviet-Polish War. Vrangel's Defeat.
By spring of 1920 the Red Army crushed the major anti-bolshevists forces, that strengthened the position of the RSFSR. The Supreme Council of Entente, taking into account existing conditions, on January, 16 formally raised economic blockade of Soviet Russia. May 7 its government signed the peace treaty with Georgian, August 10 - the agreement with Armenian and August 11 - with Latvian republics.
The economic situation of the country was remaining difficult: there was no foodstuffs, transport was destroyed, the majority of factories did not work because of the lack of fuel and raw material, the typhus raged in the country.
In such circumstances at the IX congress of the RCP (b), held on March 29 - April 5, 1920, the decision on realization of the uniform economic plan was taken. However its realization was conjugated with considerable difficulties, including external.
On the west of the country Polish armies activated their operations. All attempts of peace settlement of territorial disputes between the RSFSR and Poland had no success, as none of the sides wasn't making a concession - April 21 the Polish government signed the agreement with the Ukrainian Directory in Warsaw, by which it admitted the Supreme government of independent Ukraine. In exchange the Ukrainian Directory agreed on joining to Poland East Galicia, Western Volhynia and a part of Polesye. Simultaneously Ukrainian armies were subordinated to Polish command.
With implementation of Y.Pilsudsky's plan interfered the Ukrainian SSR and supporting it RSFSR. Therefore April 17 he gave an order " to take the offensive against Volhynia and Podoliya ", to crush the 12th and 14th armies of the Southwest front. On April 25 Polish armies started the onset . Armies of the Southwest front suffered great losses and only by the middle of May managed to stop the advance of Poles. With the purpose to prevent defeat of the Southwest front armies of the Western front under command of M.N.Tuhachevsky, not waiting till the end of shifting armies from other fronts, on May 14 passed to the offensive.
Armies of the Southwest front, having taken advantage of shifting part of forces of the Polish army to Byelorussia, May 26 launched a counteroffensive and June 12 released Kiev. The Western front, having received reinforcement, on July 4 resumed the offensive and by the end of month occupied a significant part of Byelorussia, stepping to ethnic borders of Poland. The main forces of the Southwest front continued successful onset in the Lvov direction, and its 13th army conducted severe fights in Northern Tavriya with units of the Russian army of general Vrangel having bursted through from Crimea in the beginning of June.
Stepping of the Red Army to ethnic border of Poland endangered with intrusion on its territory. July 12 the English government directed to the government of the RSFSR the ultimatum (Kerzon's note) with the requirement to hold up the offensive against Poland and simultaneously to conclude an armistice with general Vrangel. However, CC RCP (b) rejected the offers of Great Britain and made a decision to proceed from defensive to offensive war with the purpose to soldier prod Poland and to light a fire of world revolution in the West. In rear of the Soviet armies puppet government - the Temporary revolutionary committee of Poland was formed led by the member of Polish bureau of CC RCP (b) Y.B.Marchlevsky.
Armies of the Western and Southwest fronts continued advance on the Warsaw and Lvov directions. But because they went in divergent directions, interaction between them was broken. The Polish command took the advantage of it and, relying on patriotic rise in the country, managed to considerably strengthen its army. August 14 it passed in counterattack, defeated the Western front and by the end of August threw its armies back to the starting positions. To avoid defeat the Soviet government was compelled to continue negotiations on an armistice in Poland, which was signed on October 12, 1920, and March 18, 1921 the states concluded the peace treaty.
After beginning of negotiations on an armistice with Poland the General command of the Red Army concentrated principal efforts on route of the Russian army of general Vrangel. Armies of the Southern front raised in September 1920, at the end of October passed in counterattack against Northern Tavriya and inflicted partial defeat to the Russian army. In the beginning of November after regrouping of armies the Southern front led by Ì.Â. Frunze carried out a new operation finished with liberation of Crimea and defeat of Vrangel's army. The basic forces of the Russian army evacuated from Crimea to Turkey.
The Policy of Military Communism
Crisis of the policy of 'Military Communism'. Anti-bolshevists revolts.
By the beginning of 1920 the Red army set an absolute control of a significant part of the territory of former Russian empire, except for Finland, Poland, Baltic and Bessarabia. Simultaneously the Soviet government activated the work on establishment of peace relations with the frontier states. February 26 - the peace treaty with Persia, February 28 - with Afghanistan, March 16 - the treaty of friendship and brotherhood with Turkey were signed.
The domestic situation of the Soviet state was remaining grave. Still the main attention was paid to raising of military production. As a result of exhaustion of metal and fuel resources and changeover of the industry for military needs in 1920 2-3 times less machines and instruments, than in 1919 were provided for agriculture. Lack of hands, agricultural stock and seed fund resulted in reduction in 1920 of areas under crops by 25 % in comparison with 1916, and total yield of agricultural production decreased by 40-45 % in comparison with 1913.
All this and drought became the main reasons of famine in 1921. It struck about 20 % of population and resulted in loss of almost 5 million people.With the purpose of rendering assistance to starving the All-Russian (public) committee of help to starving was formed. The American organization of help (ÀRÀ) allocated for this purpose about 149 million gold roubles. In Paris under presidency of one of the founders and ideologists of the S.R. party N.D.Avksentyev the Russian public committee of help to starving in Russia was formed.
In August, 1921 Patriarch Tikhon (V.I.Belavin) in the appeal " To nations of the world and the orthodox person " called to help millions of doomed for starvation. For collecting donations of parishioners the All-Russia committee of the church help to starving was created. The government of the RSFSR negatively regarded attempts of churchmen to help starving. August 27 on accusation in appealing to support of believers of Russia and foreign countries Presidium VTSIK liquidated the All-Russia committee of help to starving. At the end of February 1922 the decree of forcible requisition of values from churches, including attributes of divine service was issued. It caused protests from the direction of acolytes of church, among whom more than 8 thousand people were subjected to repression.
Aggravation of economic situation, preservation of emergency communistic measures resulted in occurrence in 1921 of political and economical crisis in the country. Peasants complained with food allotment. They were supported by the major part of working class. Revolts were stirred up in Kronstadt (about 27 thousand people), Western Siberia (100 thousand), Tambov and a number of areas of the Voronezh and Saratov provinces (up to 30 thousand), Northern Caucasus, Byelorussia, Mountain Altai, Ukraine, Central Asia, and Don.
The army under command of M.N.Tuhachevsky, reconstituted on March 5, 1921, was directed for suppression of revolt in Kronshtadt. However, hastily prepared onslaught of Kronstadt on March, 8 had no success. After careful and thorough preparation the unit of the 7th army in the morning of March 17 started new onslaught, having a task not only to seize a fortress but also to shoot "rebels" without any regret. After suppression of the revolt in Kronstadt through created revolutionary triads in 1921-1922 passed 10 thousand people involved in the events taking place in a fortress. Out of this number 2103 people were sentenced to execution, more than 6,4 thousand to various terms of imprisonment, and others were released.
Political bureau of the CC RCP (b), taking into account M.N.Tuhachevsky's experience, April 27, 1921 took the decision to appoint him commander of the armies of the Tambov province. Since May till July 1921 the army of the Tambov province, widely using hostaging and occupation of settlements, and sometimes chemical weapon, completely crushed insurgents. By the end of July, 1921 in concentration camps was over 9,2 thousand people, including almost 2,3 thousand hostages. The Soviet authority in the Tambov province was restored.
For struggle against national 100-thousand army of insurgents in Siberia active armed forces under V.I.Shorin's command were directed. Since February till the end of 1921 they defeated insurgents, having dispersed the rests in tundra. In September 1921 the troops of the 1st Horse army under command of S.M.Budenny crushed insurgent army in Northern Caucasus, and in Ukraine the Soviet armies led by Ì.Â. Frunze defeated the army of N.I. Ìàkhnî. The armies under command of I.P.Uborevich destroyed insurgents in Byelorussia.In 1921 units of the Red Army of the RSFSR and National - revolutionary army of the Far East republic (commander V.K.Blyuher) crushed troops of general R.F.Ungern von Sternberg.
Together with the Mongolian revolutionary groups the Soviet armies occupied Urga (Ulan Bator) where the national - revolutionary authority was established. November 5 between Mongolia and the RSFSR the agreement on establishment of friendly relations was signed. In February 1922. National - revolutionary army of DVR defeated White Guards under Volochaevka and in October finished liberation of Primorsky Krai. Japan was compelled to remove its armies from South Primorsky Krai, keeping only Northern Sakhalin. The Far East republic was abolished.
vCulture, Art and Science.
The leadership of the Bolsheviks party centralized management of culture, art and science. November 9, 1917 the VTSYK and SNK founded the State commission of education, headed by A.V.Lunacharsky (1875-1933). In the beginning of 1920 work on requisition and nationalization of book assemblies, which property was transferred to the state scientific and mass libraries, was completed.
At the end of December, 1918 by the decree of the VTSYK the State publishing house was founded.In October 1917 the Union of proletarian cultural and educational organizations (Proletcult) was organizationally formed. Among its heads and theorists were A.A.Bogdanov, F.I. Kalinin, P.I.Lebedev-Polyansky etc. Only in 1919 up to 400 thousand people were involved in proletcult movement. They issued up to 20 own magazines.
In November 1917 the department of arts solving questions of rendering assistance to artists and poets etc. was formed. Activity of the department was under influence of artists of the "left" direction. Artists V.M.Konashevich, B.M.Kustodiev, V.V.Lebedev and others took active part in illustration of the mass national library. N.A.Andreev, G.S.Vereysky, B.M.Kustodiev developed portrait painting in their work. In landscape graphics of A.I.Kravchenko, N.I.Piskarev, V.D.Falileev associative forms - motives of storming elements prevailed.
April 12, 1918 the decree of the SNK " Of monuments of the republic " was published, providing replacement of monuments to the tsar and his servants by new ones. According to the decree in 1918-1920 it was raised about 40 new monuments in Moscow and Petrograd. The art of decoration was wide spread, to bring the ideas of revolution to the masses.
Great attention was paid to the rise of the Soviet musical art. The Bolshoi and the Mariinsky theatres, the court orchestra (State symphonic), Synod school, conservatories, musical publishing houses, factories of musical tools passed under state authority. Under direction of musical department of the Narcompros (National enlightenment committee) education work in the broad masses was conducted, though no major music works were created. The main attention was focused on the song genre, adaptation of national and revolutionary motives, writing of military marches and songs on military themes. Many composers, performers, musicologists actively participated in educational and art-propagandistic work. Among them were B.V.Asafyev, S.N.Vasilenko, A.K.Glazunov, M.F.Gnesin, F.I.Shalyapin etc.
With the purpose of establishment of strict control of the repertoire, the repertoire section was formed at the theatrical branch of the Narcompros, in which A.A.Block, N.Bahtin, V.Meyerhold, K.Chukovsky worked. Only in Moscow in 1918 45 professional theatres were functioning.In 1918 in Petrograd with participation of M.F.Andreyeva, A.A.Block, M.Gorky, A.V.Lunacharsky the Bolshoi drama theatre was founded.
With the decree of August 27, 1919 the Sovnarcom legalized nationalization of cinema. In total in 1918-1920 it was produced more than 200 chronicle films. The Bolsheviks party leadership and the Soviet government alongside with the concern of development of new culture and art resolutely struggled with that part of intelligency, which, in their opinion, was anti-soviet.Autumn of 1922 the scientists of the 1st Moscow university, the Petrovsko-Razumovskaya agricultural academy, philosophers, agriculturists, doctors, engineers, writers etc. - total about 200 people were sent abroad from Moscow. Among them were N.A.Berdyaev, P.À. Sorokin, N.O.Lossky, F.A.Stepun etc.
The party and the Soviet government of the RSFSR alongside with establishing control of development of culture and art also centralized management of science. The Russian Academy of sciences, headed by A.P.Karpinsky, in the beginning of 1918 declared its willingness to participate in solution of tasks raised with the needs of the Soviet republic. In April the SNK decided to start financing of the work of the Academy of sciences.
In the field of development of social studies the new authority headed for introduction of communistic ideology. The Sovnarcom of the RSFSR June 15, 1918 ratified regulations of the Socialist academy of social studies (SÀÎN). Mainly members of Bolsheviks party V.D.Bonch-Bruyevich, A.V.Lunacharsky, N.K.Krupskaya and others participated in its activity. M.N.Pokrovsky headed the SÀÎN. The academy was engaged in studying and propagation of the Marxist theory, professional training. In 1920 with the purpose of studying scientific methods in all fields of education the Institute of scientific methodology was opened in spirit of revolutionary Marxism.
Revolutions of 1917
Russia in NEP
Industrialization. USSR in 30s
USSR in Second World War (1939-1945)
First Post-war Decade
XX CPSU Congress. "Thaw" (1956-1964)
Epoch of "Developed Socialism" (1964-1985)