Russian Women About Russia Dating Advice Services Daily Horoscope Gift Shop Consultation Forum
Russian Travel Learn Russian Dating Services Fiancee Visa Russian Religion Online Conversion Contact Me Home
Russian Bride Russian Bride

RUSSIAN BRIDE GUIDE   

Russian Bride
Russian Bride


SITEMAP ROMANCE  TOURS INTERNATIONAL DATING ABOUT RUSSIAN  WOMEN SCAM  LIST HOW  AVOID  FRAUD RUSSIAN TRAVEL DATING ADVICE DATING SERVICES SINGLES CRUISES LANGUAGE COURSES LEARN RUSSIAN

Russian Travel Tips Russian Scam List How Scams Work Avoid Fraud and Scam How to avoid problems What I need to have Visas Service Russian Visas Ukraine Visas Belarus Visas Uzbekistan Visa Turkmenistan Visa Kazakhstan Visa Airfare Fiancee Visa Embassies Russian hotels Ukraine Hotels Russian flats

ABOUT RUSSIA Main Info About Russia The Anthem of Russia Russian Flag Russian State emblem Russian Power structure Russian Regions Russian Cities Nations of Russia Russian Culture and Russian Art Russia History Religion in Russian Russian Geography and Russian Nature Learn Russian Fast Russian Holidays Russian Weather Russian Names Sizes in Russia OUR SERVICES AFA Gift &Services Gift Shope Consultation
Advice Line
Dating Services Express Mail Phone Translation Visa Services Fiancee Visa ABOUT ME CONTACT ME


ABOUT RUSSIA / NATIONS / KALMYKS

About Russia

Nations of Russia

The Kalmyks

The Kalmyks live in the Republic of Kalmykia, Astrakhanskaya Oblast, Volgogradskaya Oblast, Rostovskaya Oblast, Orenburgskaya Oblast, Stavropolsky Krai, Siberia.
Religion: Lamaist trad. of Buddhism, some Orthodox Christians
Language is related to Mongolian group of Altay family
Diaspora: Central Asia, Caucasus, USA, Switzerland, Germany.

The Kalmyks' ancestors were western Mongols, the Oirots. The name Kalmyk comes probably from a Turkic term for Oirots who did not convert to Islam. In Russian official documents, the term Kalmyk appears since the end of the 16th c. The Kalmyks themselves started using it at the end of the 18th c.
The process in which the Kalmyks, a semi-nomadic people, came voluntarily under Russian authority started at the beginning of 16th c. The Kalmyks got the pastures by the Irtysh, Om and Ishim rivers. Due to a conflict with Siberian Tatars, they migrated further west and settled on the lower Volga River.
1664-1771: the Kalmyk Khanate recognized the Russian Tsar's superior authority but had relative autonomy in internal affairs and right to independent foreign relations. According to approximate calculations, about 270,000 Kalmyks became Russian subjects. The area which was under the Kalmyk Khanate is about the region of Kalmykia now.
In 1771, approx. 125.000 Kalmyks left for Dzungaria either because of a) increasing oppression by Russia or b) to help the Oirots against the Chinese. Most of them died on their way. The Kalmyk Khanate was dissolved and its territory was incorporated into Astrakhan Province.
Some of the remaining Kalmyks were resettled by the government along the Ural, Terek and Kuma rivers, some in Siberia. Various reforms introduced by authorities in 1825-1847 turned Kalmykia into an ordinary outlying colony of the Russian Empire. In 1892, serfdom was abolished in Kalmykia.
The 1917 revolution and the following civil war divided the Kalmyks into two hostile camps. One part accepted the new regime, while others joined the White Army and after its defeat emigrated to the West. The Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast which was established within Russia in 1920, was changed into the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1933/1935.
In 1943, the Kalmyks became as many other peoples of the USSR subject to deportations to Central Asia, Siberia, Altay, Kazakhstan. This relocation process lasted more than 13 years and its consequence was the death of more than 1/3 of the Kalmyks and the loss of many cultural features such as the language, religion, artefacts. Another factor which had contributed to the decline in the Kalmyk population (106,066 in 1959), was the suppression of the opposition against collectivization in the 1920s. In 1957-58, the autonomy was rehabilitated and a part of the Kalmyks returned to Kalmykia. The political, economic and psychological consequences of the deportation still weigh heavily on the Kalmyks.
An Institute for the revival of the Kalmyk language and Buddhism has been opened in Elista. In 1990, the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic proclaimed its sovereignty and in 1992 changed its name to the Republic of Kalmykia-Khalmg Tangch - used until Feb.96, at present Republic of Kalmykia. As the Republic changed its name, it approved federation within Russia under the condition that the mineral resources remain under local control. More than 10 political parties and social movements were active in Kalmykia in 1993.
NATIONS OF RUSSIA

 

The Adygy I The Aguls I The Akhvakhs I The Aleuts I The Altaians I The Andians nations I The Andins I The Archins I The Armenians I The Aserbaijanians I The Assyrians I The Avars I The Baghulals I The Balkarians I The Baraba Tatars I The Bashkirs I The Besermians I The Bezhtians I The Botlikhs I The Bulgarians I The Buryats I The Byelorussians I The Chamalals I The Chechens I The Cherkess I The Chukchis I The Chuvashs I The Cossacks I The Crimean Tatars I The Dargins I The Didos I The Dolgans I The Enets I The Eskimos I The Estonians I The Evenks I The Evens I The Finns I The Gagauz I The Georgians I The Germans I The Ginukhs I The Godoberins I The Greeks I The Gypsies I The Hunzibs I The Ingush I The Itelmens I The Izhorians I The Jews I The Kabards I The Kalmyks I The Karachay I The Karatas I The Karelians I The Kazakhs I The Kets I The Khakass I The Khants I The Khvarshis I The Komi-Permyaks I The Komis I The Koreans I The Koryaks I The Kumuks I The Kyrgyz I The Laks I The Latvians I The Lezgins I The Lithuanians I The Mansis I The Maris I The Moldovans I The Mordvins I The Mountain Jews I The Nanais I The Negidals I The Nenets I The Nganasans I The Nivkhs I The Nogays I The Orochis I The Oroks I The Ossetians I The Permyak Komis I The Poles I The Russians I The Rutuls I The Saams I The Selkups I The Shors I The Small Nations of North I The Tabasarans I The Tajiks I The Tatars I The Tats I The Teleuts I The Tofalars I The Tsakhurs I The Turkmens I The Tyva I The Udeghes I The Udmurts I The Ukrainians I The Ulchis I The Uzbeks I The Veps I The Vods I The Yakuts I The Yukaghirs I




About Russia ]   [ Listen to the national anthem of Russia ]   [ The State flag ]   [ The State emblem ]   [ Power structure of Russia ]   [ Regions of Russia ]   [ Cities of Russia ]   [ Nations of Russia ]  


Elena Korosteleva Pictures
ONLINE CONVERSION >> Convert just about anything to anything else. Over 5,000 units, and 50,000 conversions.
GIFT FINDER >>
DATING SERVICES >>
About Russian Women Russian Scam List Avoid Fraud and Scam About Russia Russian History Russian Travel Tips Services Dating Advice Daily Horoscope Russian Religion AFA Gift Service Gift Shop Learn Russian Fast Russian Slang Russian Love Words Dating Services Russian Holidays Russian Weather Russian Names Valentine's Day Women Day - March 8
iconicon



Seasonal Savings

icon

120x90 I Love You

Russian Bride Guide
Russian Bride Guide Russian Bride Guide   Russian Bride Guide
Russian Bride Guide


Singles-Exchange.Net


Terms & Conditions       Privacy Policy       Contact Us


Russian Bride Guide
In Association with AFA
7320 N Dreamy Draw Drive
Phoenix, Arizona 85020
(602) 553-8178
FAX (602) 468-1119
Contact Us