Tver, the centre of Tverskaya oblast, is situated at the distance of 167 km from Moscow and 485 km from Saint Petersburg. The city area is 147 sq. km.
The climate is moderately continental. The average temperature of January is -9,6 degrees, of July +18,2 degrees centigrade. Average annual precipitations are 593 mm. Tver stands on banks of the rivers Volga, Tverets, Tmaka, Lazur, Sominka. The present territory of the city includes a number of natural forest parks. They are the Komsomolskaya, Pervomayskaya, Bobachevsky, Berezovaya groves and the Sakharovsky park. The population is over 461 thousand people.
Tver is one of the most ancient cities of Russia being founded in 1135. In 1246 Tver became a centre of the princedom and more than two centuries on a par competed with Moscow. Local masters moulded bells, forged terrible and beautiful weaponry, minted own coin, skillfully made pottery and gold ornaments, manufactured expensive footwear and clothes. Ambassadors and merchants from Byzantium, eastern and western countries arrived here, and Tver sent its ambassadors abroad too. The first European who visited India was the Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin.
The modern city plan was designed in the 18th century when the city was reconstructed by order of Catherine II according to the model of St. Petersburg.In 1931 Tver was renamed into Kalinin and received its original name only in the beginning of "Perestroika".
The industry of city is represented by 90 large and middle-scale enterprises of various patterns of ownership. There are more than 2,1 thousand small-scale enterprises. Over 8 thousand natural persons are engaged in business (16 % of the whole number of working people).
Tver is the diversified industrial centre. Such industries as the machine-building, chemical, light, food-processing ones are represented here. There are the enterprises of building materials, 2 large polygraphic mills here. The city has the developed market infrastructure. One can find commercial banks, insurance companies, investment funds, realtor offices, consulting and information organizations.
The scientific and technical potential of the city is represented by almost 40 scientific institutes and design offices of various profiles. The educational level of the population is rather high. Tver is one of the leaders among Russian cities in training of experts. In 4 state institutes of higher education (the Humanitarian and Technical Universities, Medical and Agricultural Academies) staff for the industry, agriculture and social sphere is trained.
Annual graduation makes more than 4 thousand experts. About 7 thousand students are trained in 12 specialized secondary schools. 15 technical training colleges prepare 3 thousand qualified workers more. The non-governmental educational system is also highly developed. There are 68 municipal and private comprehensive schools for about 55 thousand pupils.
Here you can visit the Drama Theatre, Theatre of the young spectator, Puppet theatre, Philharmonic society and circus. There are many museums such as the Architectural and Literary Museum, the Museum of Tver life "The city manor", the Picture gallery; the Museum of M.E.Saltykov-Shedrin; the Youth Exhibition Centre named after L. Chaikina, "The Tver manufactory", the Arts Exhibition Hall and the Regional Industrial Exhibition.
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